Cytomorphological and cytogenetic characteristics of buccal epithelium of persons that live in a "sick building"

  • Authors: T.S. Oboronova, V.S. Lisovska, B.I. Palamar, N.V. Kurdil, N.P. Chermnykh
  • UDC: 576.31+613.5+661.727.1
  • DOI: 10.33273/2663-4570-2023-94-1-72-84
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T. Oboronova1, V. Lisovska1, B. Palamar2, N. Kurdil1, N. Chermnykh1


1L.I. Medved’s Research Center of Preventive Toxicology, Food and Chemical Safety, Ministry of Health, Ukraine (State Enterprise), Kyiv, Ukraine

2Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine


ABSTRACT. The micronucleus test on buccal cells is a sensitive, minimally invasive and quite common method of cytogenetic studies.

Aim. Study of cytomorphological and cytogenetic characteristics of the buccal epithelium using the micronucleus test in persons exposed to volatile organic compounds in the conditions of a "sick building".

Materials and methods. The condition of the buccal epithelium was studied in 237 residents of apartment buildings and offices who complained of an unpleasant smell in the premises (male – 117, female – 120). Buccal cells were stained with 2.5 % acetoorcein solution and 1 % light green. Microscopy of the preparations was carried out using an optical microscope OPTON Axioskop (Germany) with magnification by oil immersion – x1000. Morphometric analysis of cell parameters and calculation of the percentage ratio of different forms of epitheliocytes was carried out using the Excel program. Calculations of the frequency of formation of micronuclei were carried out according to the order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated 13.03.2007 № 116 "On the approval of methodological recommendations: Survey and zoning of the territory according to the degree of influence of anthropogenic factors on the state of environmental objects using cytogenetic methods." Statistical data processing was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics program (Student's t-test; Mann-Whitney; ANOVA: Tukey; T3-Dunnett), at p ≤ 0.05.

Results. Cytomorphological and cytogenetic changes in buccal cells were detected in a wide range of frequencies of 0.3–7.0 ‰; normal cells – 81 %; karyorrhexis and mast cells – 5 %, nuclear doubling and vacuolar dystrophy – 2 %, phagocytosis-apoptosis and absence of a nucleus – 1 %, colonization by microflora – 1 %, micropoison – 0.6 %, multinucleated cells – 0.5 %, protrusion of the nucleus "broken "egg" – 0.5 %, "tongue" nucleus protrusion – 0.3 %. According to the MN-test, it was established that a strong correlation between the parameters of the frequency of MN formation and increasing age (R2 = 0.860) was characteristic of females, however, the degree of correlation was weak among males (R2 = 0.495). It was also established that the maximum rate of formation of micronucleus was observed among males in the age groups of 15–39 years and 65 years and older, and among females – in the age group of 65 years and older.

Conclusions. In general, studies confirm that buccal epitheliocytes are sensitive to various exogenous and endogenous factors, which affects the cytomorphological and cytogenetic features of buccal cells, and these features have a rather wide spectrum.

Keywords: indoor air, "sick building syndrome", cytogenetic studies, buccal epithelium, micronucleus test.



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Стаття надійшла до редакції 29.03.2023

The article was received by the editorial March, 29th, 2023